Common name: red goshawk
Scientific name: Erythrotriorchis radiatus
Animal group: raptors
Conservation status: This species is listed as Endangered in Queensland (Nature Conservation Act 1992) and is Vulnerable nationally (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999). It is ranked as a high priority under the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Back on Track species prioritisation framework.
The red goshawk is a large raptor (i.e. bird of prey) with a total body length of 45-58cm and a wingspan of 110-135cm. Its overall body colour is reddish-brown with darker mottling. Its head is white and streaked with darker feathers. Fully extended, its wings show a series of black bands from below and it has a grey barred tail. It has long yellow legs with the upper legs covered by rusty red feathers.
Habitat and Distribution
The red goshawk has an enormous home range covering between 50 and 220 square kilometres. It prefers a mix of vegetation types with its habitat including tall open forest, woodland, lightly treed savannah and the edge of rainforest. In partly cleared parts of eastern Queensland, it is associated with gorge and escarpment country.
It occurs over eastern Queensland and across northern Australia, and there are also confirmed sightings from central Australia. Its distribution once extended to Sydney but it is now virtually extinct south of the New South Wales border. In the Northern Territory the Twiwi Islands are the stronghold for the species, supporting approximately 15 per cent of the Australian population (Woinarski et al. 2000).
Adult red goshawks in northern Australia do not migrate, whereas some adults in south-east Australia migrate from the ranges to lowlands in winter (Czechura 1996).
There are now fewer than 1000 adult red goshawks. It is estimated that about 700 pairs including 100 pairs on the Tiwi Islands which is probably a separate population. In Queensland, the population includes 10-30 pairs in south-east Queensland bioregion, 25-30 pairs in the Wet Tropics bioregion, 65-70 pairs in Cape York Peninsula bioregion and about five pairs in the Mt Isa Inlier bioregion. Another three bioregions in Queensland are currently unsurveyed.
Life History and Behaviour
The red goshawk is a solitary bird that usually attacks from a perch by gliding straight at its prey. It mainly preys on birds but will take mammals, reptiles and insects. It will also attack prey from the air and follows fires and other disturbances looking for any animals that are flushed out. It moves frequently from perch to perch when hunting and will soar for extended periods of time in search of prey.
The male red goshawk does most of the nest building, creating a large platform of dead sticks lined with twigs and green leaves. The nest is located in an exposed fork in the top of a living tree between 10 and 20 m above the ground. The same nest sites are used each year.
Breeding generally occurs from September to November, with females laying one or two eggs from August to October in the south-east and May to October in the northern part of Australia. The female incubates the eggs for 39-43 days, with the eggs hatching a few days apart. The young are fully fledged after seven to eight weeks but are not fully independent for at least another ten weeks.
Much of the red goshawk's habitat has been cleared for urban development, agriculture and forestry. This has also reduced the availability of large nesting trees and prey. Heavy grazing, frequent burning or the degradation of freshwater wetlands may also contribute to reducing the availability of prey for the red goshawk.
Fragmentation of habitat may be a threat for red goshawk in Queensland as most are scarce where lowland forests have been cleared for agriculture. Nests are particularly vulnerable as they are usually found in the tallest trees that are valuable for timber, or are exposed to storm damage and other disturbance.
A national recovery plan for the red goshawk has been developed and recommends the following conservation management actions:
- Nest sites are being monitored to determine breeding success and prevent disturbance. The plan recommends that monitoring continues in order to determine territory occupancy, productivity and adult survival rates.
- Reduce the effects of habitat fragmentation and habitat degradation by encouraging land owners to enter into voluntary conservation covenants/agreements in areas where red goshawks are located to protect both the birds and their habitat.
- Conduct searches to identify previously unknown pairs of red goshawks, nest sites, and habitats critical for red goshawk survival.
- Identify areas of important habitat for the red goshawk.
- Increase community awareness about the red goshawk and conservation through educational materials.
Czechura GV. 1996. Status and distribution of the Red Goshawk Erythrotriorchis radiatus in southern Queensland. Unpublished report to the Queensland Department of Environment.
Department of Environment and Resource Management. 2012. National recovery plan for the red goshawk (Erythrotriorchis radiatus). Report to the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Canberra. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management, Brisbane.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. 2012. Erythrotriorchis radiatus Red goshawk. Species Profile and Threats Database. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Canberra.
Garnett ST, Szabo JK and Duntson G. 2011. The action plan for Australian birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Marchant S and Higgins PJ. 1993. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic Birds. Volume 2. Raptors to Lapwings. Oxford University Press.
Woinarski J, Brennan K, Hempel C, Firth R and Watt F. 2000. Biodiversity Conservation on the Tiwi Islands: plants, vegetation types and terrestrial vertebrates on Melville Island. A report to the Tiwi Land Council.