Little waterfall frog
Common name: little waterfall frog, armoured mistfrog
Scientific name: Litoria lorica
Family: Hylidae (tree frogs)
Conservation status: This species is listed as Endangered in Queensland (Nature Conservation Act 1992) and Critically Endangered nationally (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999). It is considered a low priority under the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Back on Track species prioritisation framework.
This medium sized frog has males ranging from 29 to 33 mm and females from 33 to 37 mm long. The upper surface is uniform grey or grey-brown, smooth and with scattered small tubercules. The underneath of the frog is white, variably peppered with dark brown on the throat and granular on the thorax, abdomen and backs of the thighs, but smooth elsewhere.
The finger and toe discs are well developed. The fingers have basal webbing and the toes are fully webbed. The hands have an enlarged prepollex. Males have black spiny nuptial pads and accessory spines on the chest. The head is evenly rounded, with snout truncate and nostrils terminal. The tympanum is small and indistinct. The vocal sac is absent.
Habitat and distribution
The little waterfall frog is found on boulders in the splash zone near turbulent, fast-flowing water in upland rainforest and adjacent sclerophyll forest.
This species is only known from five localities in north-east Queensland: Thornton Peak, Mt Pieter Botte, Mossman Gorge and Carbine Tableland. Only the recently discovered Carbine Tableland population is still extant. The species has not been found at the remaining four sites since 1991, despite ongoing survey efforts.
Life history and behaviour
The call of this species is unknown. Females carry large unpigmented eggs. The tadpoles, though undescribed, are probably similar to those of the waterfall frog Litoria nannotis - with large suctorial mouths for feeding in fast-flowing streams.
The little waterfall frog is one of seven species of frogs occurring in the upland rainforest streams of north-eastern Queensland which have undergone rapid and substantial population declines in the last decade (Richards et al 1993).
The causes of the decline remain unknown with no obvious evidence found that drought, floods, habitat destruction or pollution by pesticides, inorganic ions or heavy metals were responsible for the population declines. Current research is examining the possibility that a disease may have caused the decline of the stream dwelling frogs of the Wet Tropics. Information on disease investigations and management can be located at the James Cook University website. Chytrid fungus has been found on little waterfall frogs on the Carbine Tableland, Mt Lewis Forest Reserve.
The recovery plan for the conservation of stream-dwelling frogs of the Wet Tropics bioregion makes the following management recommendations
- Monitor historical localities to detect recovery.
- Investigate disease in preserved animals and species occupying similar habitat.
- Develop and refine husbandry techniques for rainforest steam dwelling frogs.
- Train park staff and community volunteers in identification of this species.
- Implement monitoring by park staff of select locations within the national park estate where the little waterfall frog formerly occurred.
Curtis LK, Dennis AJ, McDonald KR, Kyne PM, and Debus SJS. 2012. Queensland’s Threatened Animals, CSIRO, Victoria, Australia
Northern Queensland threatened Frogs Recovery Team. 2001. Recovery plan for the stream-dwelling rainforest frogs of the Wet Tropics biogeographic region of north-east Queensland 2000-2004. Report to Environment Australia, Canberra. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.
Richards, SJ, McDonald, KR, Alford, RA. (1993). Declines in populations of Australia’s endemic tropical rainforest frogs. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 66-77.